Lcn vs pcn

Simply put, you shouldn't be placing that pretty airplane of yours on any surface not strong enough to support it. Just because you were able to taxi it there, doesn't mean it is going to stay there. One of my office mates at the Pentagon once watched helplessly as his empty C-5A Galaxy sunk more than a foot into the tarmac after the K-Loaders put nearly a hundred thousand pounds of cargo on it.

You could see the same thing on your considerably smaller aircraft after the fuel truck pulls away. It would be a simple matter except for the fact not everyone uses the same terminology, not everyone makes the necessary pavement measurements, and sometimes those measurements don't apply to any place other than the runway. Always remember that the airport manager is concerned about his PCN versus your ACN primarily in terms of how it impacts the life of his pavement, but he is also concerned with the revenue your visit will generate.

You need to be concerned in terms of getting into, parking, and leaving his airport without any damage to your airplane. The best question you can ask is "have you parked aircraft of my type on your ramp recently?

lcn vs pcn

You can probably get by with just your ACN and the airport's PCN so long as you stick to airports where aircraft of your type. But if you venture out where you may be the first of your type, then maybe a little background research will serve you well. Everything here is from the references shown below, with a few comments in an alternate color. Simmons, GA — note: I have several shots of this incident but don't know where they came from.

If you do, please "Contact Eddie" below, I would like to use the photos for an upcoming magazine article. Too much information you say? Well you can cut to the chase and look for a step-by-step method on how to handle the pavement loading question. See: Plan Bbelow. Using this method, it is possible to express the effect of an individual aircraft on different pavements with a single unique number that varies according to aircraft weight and configuration e.

Conversely, the load-carrying capacity of a pavement can be expressed by a single unique number, without specifying a particular aircraft or detailed information about the pavement structure. You are going to get your Aircraft Classification Number ACN from your aircraft flight manual or other documents provided by your manufacturer.

What follows are the nuts and bolts that go into that number. While you can certainly survive without this information, knowing it will help you evaluate a surface when the information provided by the airport is less than complete.

When discussing pavement hardness, a standard used by many is the California Bearing Ratio:. For the purposes of a pilot trying to decide if the pavement can support the aircraft, the math behind the computation of the number isn't really important. What does matter, however, are the items in the flow chart that the pilot can control or needs to understand when comparing one aircraft to another.

You cannot assume a smaller or lighter aircraft has a lower ACN. Therefore, from left to right on the flow chart. The number of wheels, their spacing, tire pressure and size determine the distribution of aircraft load to the pavement.

In general, the pavement must be strong enough to support the loads applied by the individual wheels, not only at the surface and the subgrade but also at intermediate levels. For the closely spaced wheels of dual and dual-tandem legs and even for adjacent legs of aircraft with complex undercarriages the effects of distributed loads from adjacent wheels overlap at the subgrade and intermediate level.

In such cases, the effective pressures are those combined from two or more wheels and must be attenuated sufficiently by the pavement structure. Since the distribution of load by a pavement structure is over a much narrower area on a high strength subgrade than on a low strength subgrade, the combining effects of adjacent wheels is much less for pavements on high strength than on low strength subgrades.

This is the reason why the relative effects of two aircraft types are not the same for pavements of equivalent design strength, and this is the basis for reporting pavement bearing strength by subgrade strength category. Within a subgrade strength category the relative effects of two aircraft types on pavements can be uniquely stated with good accuracy.

With an aft center of gravity it is not uncommon to have a weight distribution that is 90 percent or higher on the main landing gear.

The arrangement of the wheels dramatically affects ACN values. Smaller aircraft, say in the Gulfstream range, will have dual wheels close enough to be considered a single wheel on some pavements. Larger aircraft, say in the Boeing range, will have dual tandem trucks that are large enough to be considered four separate wheels.

This isn't written very well, but given the "standard" tire pressure used in their calculations is 1. That places most jet tires in the high category. The G standard tire pressure is psi.Forums New posts Search forums. Media New media New comments Search media. Resources Latest reviews New resources Search resources. Attachment List. Log in Register. Search titles only. Search Advanced search….

New posts. Search forums. Log in. For a better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding. Thread starter ranvir. Please guide. Stijloor Staff member. Super Moderator. Oct 30, Jgryn Involved In Discussions Oct 30, In most organizations ECN's are items that affect the fit, form or function of the product. Something that the customer will notice and will affect how they use the product.

This includes colour or material changes. Even if the material is replaced with a similar material, the validation testing will probably need to be repeated. Most ECN's require customer approval, or at least buy in.The wise author applies for the LCCN before the book is printed. Library of Congress Catalog Control Number. The good news is that these are free although going through the two steps to get them can sometimes be a pain in the tush.

Here are your steps:.

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You must have your ISBN to get it. A final note to those with accounts already: The password expires after 60 days. A new one can be created using the following instructions. It must:. If the password has expired, just write the old one out and write the new one under it, changing just one of the numbers or letters.

Keep a record so that you know what has been changed, thus avoiding repeating the old number by chance. Your LCCN will come to you via email. Print it out. Put in it a Folder for all your Publisher Info. Create a Folder on your computer—put it there as well. Get your copy now. Inthe dates are June th. Join Judith live on Thursdays at 6 p. Author U is a non-profit membership organization dedicated to the author who wants to be seriously successful. Monthly education programs delivered face-to-face and online, The Author Resource ezine, BookCamps, and the annual Author U Extravaganza are tools designed for authors pre- during and post-publishing of their books.

Join AuthorU. I did however expertise some technical points using this web site, as I experienced to reload the website a lot of times previous to I could get it to load properly. I had been wondering if your web host is OK? Not that I am complaining, but slow loading instances times will sometimes affect your placement in google and can damage your high-quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords.

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Thanks Eli … we will give the webmaster a heads-up about the webhosting. Thank you so much for this! I was a bit confused and having read so much self publishing information, I just needed something simple and straight to the point. The LOC only gives info about unpublished books…. Your publisher should have handled this in the beginning. Hello Judith!

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Thanks Chris … we actually have a printed document with all the info from the LOC. Thanks for this easy-to-follow guideline.

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I received my id and password within a matters of hours.The aircraft classification number ACN is a number expressing the relative effect of an aircraft on the runway pavement for a specified standard subgrade category, using a method defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO.

The ACN is a single unique number expressing the relative effect of an aircraft on a pavement for a specified subgrade strength specifying a particular pavement thickness. It consists of a number on a continuous scale, ranging from 0 on the lower end and with no upper limit, that is computed between two pavement types rigid or flexibleand the subgrade support strength category. Using the ACN method, it is possible to express the effect of individual aircraft on different pavements by a single unique number, which varies according to pavement type and subgrade strength, without specifying a particular pavement thickness.

The ACN is twice the derived single-wheel load expressed in thousands of kilograms, with single-wheel tire pressure standardized at 1. Additionally, the derived single-wheel load is a function of the sub-grade strength. The ACN of an airplane is a function of not only its weight but also the design parameters of its landing gear such as the distances between the wheels of a multiple-wheel landing gear assembly.

The pavement's strength is denoted by its pavement classification number PCN. The load exerted on a pavement by the landing gear of an airplane is denoted as its ACN, or airplane classification number. The ACN is not permitted to exceed the PCN of the runway to be used, in order to prolong pavement life and prevent possible pavement damage.

lcn vs pcn

The method concentrates on classifying the relative damage of aircraft. ICAO foresees that each pavement authority will define a PCN by whatever means is considered suitable to indicate the support level of a particular pavement such that all aircraft with a published ACN equal to or less than the reported PCN can use that pavement safely, without load bearing failure or undue damage to the structure.

According to this worldwide standard, aircraft can safely operate on a pavement if their ACN is less than or equal to the pavement load bearing capacity or PCN. Unfortunately the fact that the method of calculating ACN utilises two common design and analysis methods the CBR equation and Westergaard theories has led a surprisingly large number of people to assume that it is a design and evaluation method.

It is not intended for design or evaluation of pavements, nor does it contemplate the use of a specific method by the airport authority either for the design or evaluation of pavements.

Although the Design Manual states that any method may be used to determine the load rating of the pavements, it is obvious that the use of layered elastic method in conjunction with calibrated failure criteria is preferred.

ACN values for selected aircraft have been calculated by the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO using two computer programs, one for rigid pavements and the other for flexible pavements. Manufacturers are required to calculate ACNs for new aircraft as they come into service and publish the results in flight manuals. The tables give ACN values for two weights, one at the maximum total weight authorized and the other at the operating weight when empty.

If an aircraft is operating at an intermediate weight, the ACN value can be calculated by a linear variation between the limits. Extrapolation is not permissible. ACN is calculated with respect to the center of gravity position, which yields the critical loading on the critical gear.

Normally, the aftmost center of gravity, or CG position, appropriate to the maximum gross apron ramp mass, or ramp weight, is used to calculate the ACN.

In exceptional cases, the forwardmost CG position may make the nose-landing gear loading more critical. The internal program calculations and equations of the ICAO programs were also followed and incorporated in the new. The FAA also has a large amount of guidance material available on their website.The pavement classification number PCN is an International Civil Aviation Organization standard used in combination with the aircraft classification number ACN to indicate the strength of a runwaytaxiway or airport apron or ramp.

This helps to ensure that the runways etc. The PCN is expressed as a five-part code, separated by forward slashes, describing the piece of pavement concerned. The first part is the PCN numerical value, indicating the load-carrying capacity of the pavement.

This is always reported as a whole number, rounded from the determined capacity. The value is calculated based on a number of factors, such as aircraft geometry and a pavement's traffic patterns, and is not necessarily the direct bearing strength of the pavement.

The second part is a letter: either an R or an F, depending on whether the pavement itself is of a rigid most typically concrete or a flexible most typically asphalt design. The third part is another letter from A to D expressing the strength of what is underneath the pavement section, known as the subgrade.

So a subgrade of A would be very strong, like concrete-stabilised clay. A subgrade of D would be very weak, like uncompacted soil. The fourth part is either a letter, or a number with units expressing the maximum tire pressure that the pavement can support. In terms of letters, W is the highest, indicating that the pavement can support tires of any pressure.

Concrete surfaces can support tire pressures greater than those of existing commercial aircraft and are therefore nearly always rated W. Other letter classifications are as follows:. The fifth and final part describes how the first value was worked out, a T indicating a technical evaluation, and a U indicating usage — a physical testing regime. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The references in this article are unclear because of a lack of inline citations. Help Wikipedia improve by adding precise citations!

May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Categories : Airport infrastructure Encodings. Hidden categories: Articles lacking in-text citations from May All articles lacking in-text citations. Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.The Library of Congress Control Number LCCN is not legally required for a self published book, but it is a mark of professionalism and it does have meta data and other advantages.

It can take several weeks to receive the LCCN for your book title, and so it should be part of your self publishing calendar as you plan. The application process, and the assignment, is free. Having a LCCN is one of the actions you take as a self publisher that makes you really more of an independent publisher or small press. The entire point of having a LCCN is so that libraries can find, and therefore order, your book for their library collection.

On the one hand, there are 9, libraries in the USA and if they all ordered my book, I would be very pleased.

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On the other hand, if my book is in the library, then I am not selling more copies even though I am gaining more readers. A vision of a print book on a library bookshelf — like all those thousands of books from the library shelves throughout my life, since the day I could read. But besides visions and dreams, having my book in the Library of Congress database is part of the magic of SEO and keyword searchability that is an ongoing, slow process similar to the formation of a coral reef.

One coral reeflet is lost in the wide ocean, but over time, the reef can grow until it gains the attention of everyone who passes. These small registry actions I take will accrete over time and make my name more findable, and my books more available. Once you have your LCCN, it goes on the copyright page of your book. The formatting is described in the email or letter you get from the PCN office.

There is a follow-up step required once you publish your book, and that is to send a copy of the book a nice copy, not a proof or flawed one to the Library of Congress. At the time of this writing,that address is below. Sending the copy for the LCCN is not the same as sending two copies for your copyright obligation. Washington, DC Good luck! Email Address.

What's the difference between Engineering (ECN) and Process (PCN) Change Notes?

Now Available on Amazon. Now Available in Kindle Format. The Books! Does a self published book need the LCCN? Share this: Facebook Twitter. Comments RSS feed. Leave a Reply Cancel reply.

lcn vs pcn

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lcn vs pcn

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